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The Coin Galleries: Sultans of Jaunpur

The city of Jaunpur was founded by the Sultan of Delhi Feroz Shah Tughlaq in 1359 and named in memory of his father, Muhammad bin Tughluq, whose given name was Jauna Khan. After the death of Firuz in 1388, the Delhi Sultanate fell into disarray amidst factional fighting over the succession. Taking advantage of the unsettled situation, the vazir Khwaja Jahan, also known as Malik Sarwar, who had been sent in 1393 to the east to establish order, instead set himself up as an independent sultan with his base at Jaunpur. Thus was the Jaunpur Sultanate born. It was to last 100 years.

The Jaunpur Sultanate attained its greatest height under the younger brother of Mubarak Shah, the adopted son of Malik Sarwar, who ruled as Shams ud-din Ibrahim Shah (1402-1440). To the east, his kingdom extended to Bihar, and to the west, to Kanauj; he even marched on Delhi at one point. Under the aegis of a Muslim holy man named Qutb al-Alam, he threatened the Sultanate of Bengal under Raja Ganesha (Danujamarddana Deva).

During the reign of Husain Shah (1456-76), the Jaunpur army was perhaps the biggest in India, and Husain decided to attempt a conquest of Delhi. However, he was defeated on three successive attempts by Bahlul Shah Lodi. Finally, under Sikandar Lodi, the Delhi Sultante was able to reconquer Jaunpur in 1493, bringing that sultanate to an end.

Shams al-Din Ibrahim Shah (1402-1440)

Shams al-Din Ibrahim Shah (1402-1440) Gold tanka
Weight: 11.40 gm., Diameter: 22 mm., Die axis: n.a.
Legend: al-sultan al-a'zam shams al-dunya wa'l din
     abu'l muzaffar ibrahim shah al-sultani khulidat mamlakatahu
Legend: fi-zaman al-imam amir al-mu'minin fath khulidat khilafatahu,
     date in margin: (AH) 841 (= 1437-38 CE)
Ref: Goron-Goenka J2

Shams al-Din Ibrahim Shah (1402-1440) Silver or Billon 32-ratti
Weight: 3.66 gm., Diameter: 15 mm., Die axis: 5 o'clock
Legend: ibrahim shah al-sultani khulidat mamlakatahu /
Legend: al-khalifa amir al-mu'minin khulidat khilafatahu,
Ref: Goron-Goenka J7
Nasir al-Din Mahmud Shah (1440-1456)

Nasir al-Din Mahmud Shah (1440-1456) Billon 32-ratti (1/3 tanka)
Weight: 3.76 gm., Diameter: 14-15 mm., Die axis: 9 o'clock
Legend: mahmud shah bin ibrahim shah sultani khulidat mamlakatahu /
Legend: al-khalifa amir al-mu'minin khulidat khilafatahu
Ref: Goron-Goenka J13
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